Preselection with refrigerant tables

Many different refrigerants have been proposed as replacement for certain applications or certain other refrigerants. Often, the choice is made based on a similar volumetric refrigeration capacity. In this way, the refrigeration systems can be designed with similar compressor volume flow and material expenses. Some proposals are more oriented along the typical application evaporation temperature range of a refrigerant. Sometimes the manufacturer proposes a refrigerant as alternative or replacement for another frequently used refrigerant.

Corresponding data are listed in the refrigerants tables in (Refrigerant selection tables) further down. Example:

The following table shows the data for R134a and alternative refrigerants.

ODP: ozone depletion potential
GWP: global warming potential according to EN 378:2017; AR4: Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC, AR5: Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC, AR6: Sixth Assessment Report of the IPCC
pract. limit AEL: assigned exposure limit according to EN 378:2017
Temperature glide: Total glide from bubble to dew line, based on 1.013 bar. Real glide depends on operating conditions.
Relative refr. capacity and discharge temp. increase: Reference refrigerants are those listed under "Substitute for", performance data are average values based on calorimeter tests.
(H): high temperature application
(M): medium temperature application
(L): low temperature application
Data is based on publications of various refrigerant manufacturers and is subject to change.

R134a and alternative refrigerants

R134a

R1234yf

R1234ze(E)

R513A

R450A

R600a

R444A

R456A

R471A

R516A

R152a

R474A

R475A

R476A

Chemical

CF3CH2F

CH2CFCF3

CFHCHCF3

CH3CHCH3CH3

CHF2CH3

Group

HFC

HFO

HFO

HFO/HFC

HFO/HFC

HC

HFO/HFC

HFO/HFC

HFO/HFC

HFO/HFC

HFC

HFO

HFO/HFC

HFO/HFC

Components

R1234yf/ 134a

R1234ze(E)/ 134a

R32/ 152a/ 1234ze(E)

R32/ 1234ze(E)/ 134a

R1234ze(E)/ 1336mzz(E)/ 227ea

R1234yf/ 152a/ 134a

R1132(E)/ 1234yf

R134a/ 1234yf/ 1234ze(E)

R134a/ 1234ze(E)/ 1336mzz(E)

Name

1,1,1,2-tetrafluoro-ethane

2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene

trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene

XP10

N-13

isobutane

AC5

AC5X

ARM-42

1,1-difluoro-methane

Manufacturer

Chemours, Honeywell

Honeywell

Chemours

Honeywell

Koura/Mexichem

Koura/Mexichem

Honeywell

Arkema

Daikin

Gree

Honeywell

Substitute for

R12, R22

R134a

R134a

R134a, R12

R134a, R12

R134a, R12

R134a

R134a

R134a

R134a

R12, R22

R134a

R134a

R134a

Application max (°C)

25

25

40

25

25

40

25

25

20

25

25

10

15

25

Application min (°C)

-20

-25

-10

-25

-25

-10

-20

-25

-20

-25

-20

-35

-30

-15

Appl. limitations max (°C)

-20

-25

-25

-10

Appl. limitations min (°C)

-30

-30

-30

-25

Appl. 2-stage max (°C)

-20

Appl. 2-stage min (°C)

-40

Oil 1

POE

POE

POE

POE

POE

MO

POE

POE

POE

POE

POE

POE

POE

POE

Oil 2

PVE

PVE

PVE

PVE

PVE

PAO

PVE

PVE

PVE

Oil 3

POE

Oil with limitations 1

AB

AB

AB

Oil with limitations 2

PAG

PAG

Molar mass

102,03

114,04

114,04

108,31

108,67

58,12

96,7

101,42

122,09

102,58

66,05

96,7

108,54

116,9

Normal boiling point (°C)

-26,1

-29,5

-19

-29,6

-23,4

-11,8

-35,7

-30,8

-16,8

-29,4

-24

-43,1

-28,8

-19,1

Normal dew point (°C)

-26,1

-29,5

-19

-29,6

-22,8

-11,8

-24,6

-25,4

-14,6

-29,4

-24

-36,4

-28,3

-16,1

Temperature glide (K)

0

0

0

0

0,6

0

11,1

5,4

2,2

0

0

6,7

0,5

3

Crit. temp. (°C)

101

95

109

95

104

135

106

103

112,39

97

113

87,1

99,3

110

Crit. pressure (bar)

40,7

33,8

36,4

36,5

38,2

36,3

44,73

41,75

35,34

36,23

45,2

40,4

37,2

36,3

ODP

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

GWP AR4

1430

4

7

631

604

3

92

687

148

142

124

619

GWP AR5

1300

1

1

573

547

4

89

627

148

131

138

560

132

GWP AR6

1530

0,501

1,37

673

643

148

153

164

2

659

156

Cond. temp. at 26 bar abs (°C)

79

82

92

78

86

115

81

80

97

80

85

Cond. temp. at 40 bar abs (°C)

107

Relative refr. capacity (%)

97 (M)

98

75

102

88

55 (H)

Discharge temp. increase (K)

-8

-14

-7

-6

-9

Safety class

A1

A2L

A2L

A1

A1

A3

A2L

A1

A1

A2L

A2

A2L

A1

A1

Pract. limit AEL (kg/m³)

0,25

0,058

0,061

0,319

0,319

0,011

0,29

0,32

0,042

0,027

0,053

0,32

0,18

In the example table refrigerants are listed in comparison to R134a. The data for the different fluids and fluid blends are listed in columns alongside each other. Looking at the values for the normal boiling point, it becomes visible that not all of them are matching as direct replacement for R134a. This can be seen even better in the application limits. The values "application max" and "application min" describe the typical evaporation temperature range covered by this refrigerant. This one is not identical througout the candidates, but mostly far overlapping, which means a large part is the same. Most important for the targeted application is that the area of evaporation temperature where the system will be working is inside the range stated for the refrigerant.

With this, a basic assumption of applicability can be made. Refrigeration experts can also make sufficiently accurate statements about volumetric capacity and efficiency based on the other data and their experience. However, from the data in the table it cannot be read how the system is to be designed to get to the best possible efficiency.

In the table also values for ODP and GWP are listed. They will be important filtering and sorting values. The GWP values are listed for up to 3 IPCC reports. The values of report 4 are the base for the EU-F-Gas Regulation 517/2014. New fluids might be evaluated according to values from report 6.