Resulting design criteria

The fundamental criteria for HFC blends also apply to the system technology with R410A. However, the high pressure levels have to be considered (43°C condensing temperature already corresponds to 26 bar abs.).

Compressors and other system components designed for R22 are not suitable for this refrigerant (or only to a limited extent).

However, suitable compressors and system components are available.

When considering to cover usual R22 application ranges, the significant differences in the thermodynamic properties (e.g. pressure levels, mass and volume flow, vapour density) must be taken into account. This also requires considerable constructional changes to compressors, heat exchangers, and controls, as well as measures of tuning vibrations. There are stricter safety requirements, e.g. affecting the quality and dimensions of piping and flexible tube elements (for condensing temperatures of approx. 60°C/ 40 bar!).

Another criterion is the relatively low critical temperature of 71°C. Irrespective of the design of components on the high pressure side, the condensing temperature is thus limited.

R410A complies with the requirements of the EU F-Gas Regulation, which only allows refrigerants with GWP < 2500 since 2020. However, the quantity limitation through the "phase-down" will also lead to significantly restricted availability. Due to the extremely high demand for R410A, a timely switch to alternatives is needed in the EU.